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    November 28, 2011

    In this submission Amnesty International notes that the previous UPR of Tunisia failed to adequately address key human rights concerns. Few steps have been taken to translate into national law the obligations enshrined in the international treaties ratified by Tunisia. Despite the change in government, protesters have on several occasions been met with excessive force by security officers. Amnesty International also continues to receive reports of torture and other ill-treatment; the judiciary is still not fully independent and the legacy of decades of human rights abuses has yet to be addressed.

    November 22, 2011

    Less than a year after the "25 January Revolution", Egyptians' hopes for human rights reform are being crushed by the ruling military authorities, and popular demands for equality and social justice are being ignored. Since assuming power in February, the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces has repeatedly pledged to break the cycle of repression entrenched over the past 30 years. In reality, however, it has resorted to familiar patterns of abuse. This report documents how the rhetoric has obscured the increasing suppression of people who dare to defy, question or criticize Egypt's military rulers.

    October 31, 2011

    Egyptian women were instrumental in the “25 January Revolution” that overthrew the repressive regime of President Hosni Mubarak in early 2011. Yet the hopes raised for women’s rights have not been fulfilled – and women are still being largely excluded from taking part in shaping their country’s future. It is crucial that the experiences, needs and views of women are integral to the process of change. Action needs to be taken now to ensure that women participate freely and in large numbers in the parliamentary elections scheduled for November 2011.

    October 19, 2011

    Police and security forces in the Middle East and North Africa responded to the mass popular uprisings witnessed there after December 2010 with brutal repression. This crackdown by the authorities has involved the use of weaponry, munitions and related equipment imported from major arms-exporting nations. This report examines arms transfers to the region and explores some common principles that can be applied by states when authorizing arms transfers, and which should underpin the Treaty's framework.

    October 13, 2011

    Militia fighting against Colonel Mu'ammar al-Gaddafi have detained about 2,500 people in the capital Tripoli and surrounding areas since taking control of these areas in late August 2011. Most have been held without legal orders and many have been beaten and otherwise ill-treated. The new Libyan authorities – the National Transitional Council (NTC) – have promised to respect international human rights law. In this report Amnesty International urges the NTC to investigate abuses by its supporters as well as by al-Gaddafi forces, and bring the perpetrators to justice.

    October 09, 2011

    The adoption of the International Convention on the Protection of all persons from Enforced Disappearance was a major step forward in ensuring that victims of enforced disappearance and their families obtain justice, truth and full reparation. This checklist provides useful guidance to states on how to implement, in law and practice, their obligations under the Convention and related international law and standards. It is also a useful tool for civil society participating in the drafting of legislation implementing the Convention.

    Photos: All photos © private unless otherwise indicated. Usama Fakhri Mustafa Bzur, Syria; Abdelkrim Aribi, Algeria; Sandya Eknaligoda, wife of disappeared journalist Prageth Eknaligoda with their two sons Sathyajith Sanjaya and Harith Sanajaya, Sri Lanka; Alaide Foppa, Guatemala; Bekim Bunjaku, Kosovo; Aster Fissehatsion, Eritrea; Alexis Etienne Diatta, Senegal; Aminat Dugaeva, Russian Federation; Jorge Julio lópez, Argentina; Gao Zhisheng, China © Hu Jia.

    October 03, 2011

    Many Syrians abroad have been vocally expressing their solidarity with the mass pro-reform protests which have rocked Syria since March. In this briefing, Amnesty International is documenting the cases of more than 30 Syrian activists living in eight countries in Europe and North and South America who say they have faced intimidation from embassy officials and others apparently because of their activities in solidarity with the pro-reform movement in Syria. The long reach of the feared Syrian mukhabaraat, or intelligence services, seems to be in evidence.

    September 13, 2011

    In mid-February 2011 Libyans called for a "Day of Rage" against the iron-fist rule of Colonel Mu'ammar al-Gaddafi, in power since 1969. The protests were met with lethal force. By early March the uprising had evolved into an armed conflict between forces loyal to Colonel al-Gaddafi and armed protesters coalesced into a loosely structured force led by the newly established National Transitional Council. This report documents serious and widespread human rights violations by al-Gaddafi forces and also abuses committed by the opposition.

    August 31, 2011

    Relentless repression has marked Syria since March 2011, as the government continues its efforts to stifle increasing numbers of pro-reform protests. Scores of people – believed to have been detained for their actual or suspected involvement in the protests – are reported to have died in custody. Some were children. However, the Syrian authorities have failed to carry out credible investigations into any of the cases or ensure accountability for the perpetrators. Amnesty International is calling on the UN Security Council to refer the situation in Syria immediately to the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court.

    July 15, 2011

    In this document Amnesty International reaffirms the importance of addressing the question of remedies and reparation for victims of gross violations of international human rights law and serious violations of international humanitarian law in a systematic and thorough way at the national and international levels. Amnesty International continues to rigorously advocate for the full realization by States of victims’ rights as set out in the existing and comprehensive legal frameworks.

    May 19, 2011

    During 18 extraordinary days in early 2011, millions of Egyptians rose up against police brutality, poverty and the relentless repression of their basic freedoms, and ended up ousting the President. Most of the protests were peaceful, yet the authorities' response was not. At least 840 people were killed and around 6,500 were injured. Thousands were detained and many allegedly tortured by the security forces or the army. This report describes why and how the "25 January revolution" unfolded, and the patterns of repression by security forces.

    March 01, 2011

    On 14 January 2011, following a month of spiralling anti-government protests across Tunisia, President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali secretly fled the country, ending 23 years of corrupt, complacent and repressive rule. This report documents many cases of protesters and bystanders killed and injured by the security forces, and includes many moving testimonies. It calls on the new government to fully investigate the abuses and provide an adequate remedy, including justice and reparation, to victims and their families.

    March 01, 2011

    Human rights law and standards requires that investigations and prosecutions of the crimes of rape and sexual violence must be undertaken with careful attention given to the task of
    challenging stereotypes, which tend to undermine women’s equality before the law. The integrity of investigations and prosecutions should not be tainted by stereotypical
    assumptions, including assumptions about sexual violence towards men and boys, as well as towards women and girls.

    All references to the term ‘consent’ within the Elements of Crimes must be interpreted consistently with a fuller, more accurate and human-rights based understanding of the word
    consent – that a consensual decision is a decision made without force, threat of force, coercion, or taking advantage of a coercive environment. Where evidence of force, threat of force or coercion is present, there should absolutely be no additional element of law of consent for the prosecution to prove.

    February 11, 2011

    Human rights have come under increasing pressure and rising tension between the government and its critics. Hundreds of people have been arrested or imprisoned for participating in protests. In August-September 2010, the authorities swooped on 23 opposition political activists, detaining them incommunicado for two weeks during which some allege they were tortured. Meanwhile, the authorities have curtailed freedom of expression, closing critical websites and banning opposition publications. Years of progress and achievement could be erased unless urgent measures are taken to reverse the downward trend.

    December 09, 2010

    This paper analyses the absence of immunity for heads of state before the International Criminal Court and discusses its consequences on the execution of the Court’s requests for surrender or assistance. In particular, it considers the legal framework of the recent refusal of states parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court to arrest and surrender President Omar Al Bashir of Sudan.


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